The great thing about printables for personal use is that you don't need to have a fancy printer or pay a printing company a fortune. Simply print graphics at home with an inkjet or color laser printer. You can find a printer for as little as $60 or upwards of $2000. Don't think you need an expensive printer to create incredible graphics. A printer in the $100 range should work fine.
In Illustrator, you can design patterns, complex graphics and work with type. You can learn to design printables fast with the Basic Printable Design Course from Printable Crush. Illustrator is a highly in-depth program, so taking a course is a quick way to learn the basics.